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Interesting topics in 19th century iron and steel making
Presented to the: Chicago sections of ACS and AIChE January 15, 2021; Fox Valley Chapter of ASME on February 17, 2021; ASM Notre Dame Chapter on March 15, 2021.
The 19th century was a time of great change in iron and steel making. Massive productivity improvements in iron making occurred starting early in the century with the invention of the hot air blast for the smelting of iron in the blast furnace. By mid-century, steel moved from being a luxury item, made manually and arduously in puddling furnaces, to becoming a commodity by way of invention of the Bessemer (Kelly?) converter and the Siemens-Martin or open hearth furnace. These technologies resulted in the building of great industrial empires. In this talk, I will use historical drawings and photographs to present this fascinating and sometimes sordid history along with the chemistry which added science to the art.
Thesis: Thermomechanical Processing and Crystallographic Texture in Super Alpha-2 Titanium Aluminide, R.G. Rateick, Jr., PE., University of Notre Dame.
Super Alpha-2 titanium aluminide is a member of the Ti-Al family of intermetallic alloys. In this thesis submitted to the University of Notre Dame by R.G. Rateick, Jr., PE,, a thermomechanical processing (heat treating and wrought processing) plan was implemented to convert billet into upset pancakes. Metallography, tensile testing, fractography (SEM), x-ray diffraction, x-ray pole figure, crystallographic orientation distribution function analysis (CODF), and quantitative microscopy (image analysis) were used to show that superplasticity developed during alpha-beta isothermal forging. Beta heat treating resulted in large prior beta grains. Alpa-2 platelets precipitating from the beta phase on cooling had an orientation relationship with the beta grains.